Missouri Swine Industry

Swine production has always been and continues to be an important economic activity in Missouri. This industry profile is intended to provide useful background on the Missouri swine industry.

Missouri ranks within the top 10 U.S. states for hog inventory, commercial hog slaughter and hog farms. The following table lists the top 10 states for these classifications. Relative to other states, Missouri ranked sixth for hog inventory in September 2017 and fourth for commercial hog slaughter in 2016. Missouri represented the tenth largest state for number of hog farms, according to the latest U.S. Census of Agriculture in 2012. Iowa holds the top place for all three categories.

Table 1. Comparision of Hog Inventory, Commercial Hog Slaughter and Farms, By State
RankStatesHogs InventoryStatesCommercial SlaughterStateNumber of Hog/Pig Farms
1Iowa 22,700,000 Iowa32,240,300Iowa6,266
2North Carolina 9,200,000 Illinois12,068,000Texas4,905
3Minnesota 8,300,000 Minnesota10,801,000Ohio3,494
4Illinois 5,400,000 Missouri9,138,900Minnesota3,355
5Indiana 4,100,000 Indiana8,651,900Pennsylvania3,097
6Missouri 3,500,000 Nebraska7,987,100Indiana2,757
7Nebraska 3,450,000 Oklahoma5,523,000Wisconsin2,270
8Other States 3,189,000 Pennsylvania3,475,100North Carolina2,217
9Ohio 2,850,000 California2,445,800Michigan2,198
10Oklahoma 2,230,000 Ohio1,022,200Missouri2,128
Sources: USDA, National Agricultural Statistics Service

To further understand the Missouri swine production industry, look at its breeding herd and market inventory. Understanding the relationship of Missouri's swine inventories and pig crop demonstrates that Missouri sends a significant amount of feeder pigs to other states for finishing. Breeding hog inventory is shown in the following figure based on December 1 inventory levels per year. Missouri has seen a significant increase in recent years. The breeding herd was recorded at 450,000 sows on December 1, 2017, which represented 7.3% of the U.S. sow herd.

Missouri Breeding Hogs Inventory

Missouri's market hog inventory is shown in the following graph. Inventory levels have increased 10 percent from 2016 to 2017. The inventory was 2,950,000 hogs on December 1, 2017, which represents 4.4% of the U.S. market hog inventory.

Missouri Market Hogs Inventory

Missouri's annual pig crop has mostly increased in number of head since 2006. There was a decline of 365,000 head between for 2012 to 2014. The number of head has since recovered from 2014. In 2017 Missouri's pig crop reached 9,295,000 head which is the largest level over the past 20 years.

Missouri Pig Crop

The litter rate in Missouri and the U.S. has shown growth. Missouri's pig litter rate reached a high of 10.41 pigs/litter in 2012. In 2014 the rate experienced a decrease, due to the impact of the Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus (PEDV). The U.S. average head/litter decreased by 0.3 head while Missouri's average saw a significant decrease of 1.0 head/litter. Both averages have since recovered and Missouri's litter rate was recorded at 10.21 pigs/litter in 2017.

Pigs Per Litter

Missouri had 2,128 hog farms with approximately 2.77 million in inventory, according to the USDA Census of Agriculture 2012. Farrow to finish farms were the most common type with 692 farms in Missouri. Farrow to finish farms also held the largest inventory. Finish only (567 farms) and farrow to wean (231 farms) were the next most common farm type. A vast majority of the swine inventory (93%) was held on farms with inventories higher than 2,000 or more hogs (204 farms).

Missouri Hog Farms by Type of Operation, 2012
 Farm Types
Farrow to Finish6921,302,365
Finish Only567521,780
Farrow to Wean231542,095
Farrow to Feeder16917,250
Source: USDA Census of Agriculture, 2012

The hog industry is an important contributor to the state's economy. Annual cash receipts for hogs have grown significantly in Missouri over time. In 2016 hog cash receipts in Missouri was $883 million. This represented 9.9% of Missouri's cash receipts for all agricultural commodities.

Missouri Hog Cash Receipts

Pork exports in Missouri have generally increased over the last 17 years. Over the past five years, they have averaged about $275 million per year. Missouri was ranked 6th in 2016 amongst other U.S. states in pork exports with $277.8 million. Other leading states in pork exports include Iowa, Minnesota and North Carolina.

Missouri Pork Exports