Missouri Swine Industry

Swine production has always been and continues to be an important economic activity in Missouri. This industry profile is intended to provide useful background on the Missouri swine industry.

Missouri ranks within the top 10 U.S. states for hog inventory, commercial hog slaughter and hog farms. The following table lists the top 10 states for these classifications. Relative to other states, Missouri ranked seventh for hog inventory in March 2016 and fourth for commercial hog slaughter in 2015. Missouri represented the tenth largest state for number of hog farms, according to the latest U.S. Census of Agriculture in 2012. Iowa holds the top place for all three categories.

Table 1. Comparision of Hog Inventory, Commercial Hog Slaughter and Farms, By State
RankStatesHogs InventoryStatesCommercial SlaughterStateNumber of Hog/Pig Farms
2North Carolina8,700,000Illinois11,669,800Texas4,905
8Ohio2,600,000Pennsylvania3,140,400North Carolina2,217
Sources: USDA, National Agricultural Statistics Service

To further understand the Missouri swine production industry, look at its breeding herd and market inventory. Understanding the relationship of Missouri's swine inventories and pig crop demonstrates that Missouri sends a significant amount of feeder pigs to other states for finishing. Breeding hog inventory is shown in the following figure based on December 1 inventory levels from 1995 to 2015. Missouri has seen a significant increase in the two most recent years. The breeding herd was recorded at 395,000 sows on December 1, 2015, which represented 6.7% of the U.S. sow herd.

Missouri Breeding Hogs Inventory

Missouri's market hog inventory has varied quite a bit from 1995 to 2015, with a low of 2,355,000 in 2005 and a high of 3,110,000 in 1997. The inventory was 2,605,000 hogs on December 1, 2015, which represents 4.1% of the U.S. market hog inventory.

Missouri Market Hogs Inventory

Missouri's annual pig crop has mostly increased in number of head since 2006. There was a decline of 365,000 head between for 2012 to 2014. The number of head has since recovered from 2014. In 2015 Missouri's pig crop reached 8,084,000 head which is the largest level over the past 20 years.

Missouri Pig Crop

The litter rate in Missouri and the U.S. has shown growth. Missouri's pig litter rate reached a high of 10.41 pigs/litter in 2012. In 2014 the rate experienced a decrease, due to the impact of the Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus (PEDV). The U.S. average head/litter decreased by 0.3 head while Missouri's average saw a significant decrease of 1.0 head/litter. Both averages have since recovered and Missouri's litter rate was recorded at 10.11 pigs/litter in 2015.

Pigs Per Litter

Missouri had 2,128 hog farms with approximately 2.77 million in inventory, according to the USDA Census of Agriculture 2012. Farrow to finish farms were the most common type with 692 farms in Missouri. Farrow to finish farms also held the largest inventory. Finish only (567 farms) and farrow to wean (231 farms) were the next most common farm type. A vast majority of the swine inventory (93%) was held on farms with inventories higher than 2,000 or more hogs (204 farms).

Missouri Hog Farms by Type, 2012
 Farm Types
Farrow to Finish6921,302,365
Finish Only567521,780
Farrow to Wean231542,095
Farrow to Feeder16917,250
Source: USDA Census of Agriculture, 2012

The hog industry is an important contributor to the state's economy. Annual cash receipts for hogs have grown significantly in Missouri over time. In 2014 hog cash receipts in Missouri experienced an all-time high of $1.235 billion. This represented 11.2% of Missouri's cash receipts for all agricultural commodities.

Missouri Hog Cash Receipts

Pork exports in Missouri have generally increased over the last 15 years. Over the past five years, they have averaged about $266 million per year. Missouri was ranked 6th in 2014 amongst other U.S. states in pork exports with $311.5 million. Other leading states in pork exports include Iowa, Minnesota and North Carolina.

Missouri Pork Exports